Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), such as Chlamydia, Syphilis and gonorrhea, can cause a problem with male infertility, especially with repeated occurrences. The consistent abuse of alcohol and recreational drugs or a dependency on either or both can contribute to infertility. Prescription medications can cause various degrees of infertility issues, so it’s best to consult your prescribing physician prior to starting a medication. Anabolic steroids can affect hormone production and reduce the quality of sperm production. Smoking directly affects the production of sperm. Men who smoke have a lower sperm count than non-smokers.