Recurrent Miscarriage is the result of two or more miscarriages in a row without the result of a full term pregnancy.
This can be the result of several different factors.
Advanced Maternal Age
After the age of 35, the risk of miscarriage increases from ten to twenty percent to twenty five percent. After forty, more than one third of pregnancies will result in a miscarriage.
Antibodies created naturally to fight off infection in the human body can also cause the body to treat a pregnancy as if it was a foreign infection.
Almost three quarters of miscarriages are the result of chromosomal issues. Chromosomal abnormalities are more common in women of advanced maternal age and less than five percent of couples will have an inherited genetic cause of such chromosomal defects.
Endocrine Factors – LPD
The most common hormonal cause is the lack of progesterone. Progesterone is necessary to prepare the uterine lining for implantation. This defect, Luteal-phase Defect (LPD), can be treated with progesterone injections or suppositories.
Endocrine Factors – Diabetes
Women with poorly controlled Type 1 diabetes have higher rate of miscarriage.
Endocrine Factors – PCOD
Polycystic Ovarian Disease may be at risk for higher recurrance of miscarriage. The high level of luteinizing hormone may produce
Incompetent cervix simply means the cervix is too weak to maintain a pregnancy. This issue can be treated with a surgical method called a cerclage – the strengthening of the cervix to minimize the chance of miscarriage or premature delivery.
Genital infections such as bacterial vaginosis may increase a woman’s risk of having a miscarriage. Fetal infection may also cause fetal death or malformations incompatible with viability. Chronic endometrial infection could interfere with implantation. Primary herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection has been linked to spontaneous abortion, and chronic HSV is a possible cause of recurrent abortion.
Uterine Abnormalities or Defects
Uterine abnormalities commonly referred to as a tilted uterus, double or abnormally formed uterus can be responsible for a quarter of recurrent miscarriages.